V-Model in Software Testing

V- model means Verification and Validation model. V model is now one of the most widely used software development process. The introduction of V model has actually proved the implementation of testing right from the requirement phase.


In the first half of the model Verification, testing activity is integrated into each phase like review user requirements, System Design document & in the next half the Validations testing activity comes in picture.


Typical V-model shows Software Development activities on the Left-hand side of the model and the Right-hand side of the model actual Testing Phases can be performed.

V Model in Software Testing


Requirement Analysis :

Requirements like BRS and SRS begin the life cycle model just like the waterfall model. But, in this model, before development is started, a system test plan is created.  In this phase, the requirements are collected, analyzed and studied. Here how the system is implemented, is not important but, what the system is supposed to do, is important.

  • Verification —   Design Review

  • Validation —     Creation of System Test Plan

  • Deliverables —  SRS, BRS and System Plan


High-Level Design(HLD) :

In this phase, the team studies and investigates on how the requirements could be implemented. The technical feasibility of the requirements is also studied. Integration test plan is created in this phase as well in order to test the pieces of the software systems ability to work together. The team also comes up with the modules that would be created/ dependencies, Hardware/software needs.

  • Verification —   Requirements Reviews

  • Validation —     Creation of RTM and Integration Test Plan

  • Deliverables —  RTM, Integration Test Plan, Feasibility reports


Low-Level Design(LLD) :

In this phase, each and every module or the software components is designed individually. It defines the actual logic for each and every component of the system. Class diagram with all the methods and relation between classes comes under LLD. Methods, classes, interfaces, data types etc are all finalized in this phase.

  • Verification —   Design Review

  • Validation —     Creation and review of Unit Test Cases

  • Deliverables —  Unit Test Cases


Coding :

In this phase, actual coding is done. In this phase, developers convert the module design into code.

  • Verification —   Code Review

  • Validation —     Creation of functional Test Cases

  • Deliverables —  Test Cases and Scripts


When To use V_Model

V-Model is useful when —

  • Requirements are clear and well defined.

  • Acceptance criteria are defined.

  • Project duration is short.

  • Technology and resources are fixed.


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